Research Methodology for Health Professionals

Research Methodology for Health Professionals eBook Free Download

Research Methodology for Health Professionals eBook PDF Free Download

Edited by RC Goyal

Including Proposal, Thesis, and Article Writing

Published by Jaypee Publishers

About the Book

This Research Methodology for Health Professionals: Including Proposal, Thesis and Article Writing is edited by RC Goyal. This First Edition textbook of Research Methodology for Health Professionals is published by Jaypee Publishers.

Features

The book has been written in simple English without heavy technical jargons with the aim to provide readers with a book that will deliver key practical information in an efficient and effective manner and explain each topic in such a way that even someone without any health background can follow the subject and understand practical issues.

It is ideal for readers with basic knowledge of research as well as for those with intermediate knowledge who need a quick refresher regarding various aspects of the research methodology.

For readers with an advanced knowledge of research-design and methodology, this book can be used as a concise summary of basic research techniques and principles, or as an adjunct to a more advanced research methodology textbook.

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What You Will Learn

The Topics Covered in this Textbook are

1. Introduction to Health Research ……………………………….. 1
Definitions of Research 2
Characteristics of Research 3
Why to do Research? (Objectives) 3
What are the Types of Research? 3
How to do Research? 5
Major Areas of Health Systems Research 5
Some of the problems encountered by the researchers 6

2. Identification and Prioritization of Research
Problems/Areas ……………………………………………………….. 7
Criteria for Prioritizing Topics for Research 8
Nominal Group Technique (Ngt) 11

3. Literature Search …………………………………………………… 13
Sources of Information 13
Conclusion 28

4. Formulation of Objectives, Research Questions
and Hypotheses……………………………………………………… 30
Research Objectives 30
Research Questions 31
Hypotheses 31
Characteristics of Good Hypothesis 32
Types of Hypothesis 33

5. Planning the Measurements……………………………………… 36
Measurement 36
Scales of Measurement 37
Strategies to Deal with Threats to Validity 42

6. Study Design Options in Medical and Health Research … 43
Decision Algorithm for Study to be Chosen 44
Observational/Non-Experimental/Non-Interventional Studies 45
Schematic Diagram of Nested Case-Control Study Design 53
Measurements in Various Study Designs 55
Experimental/Intervention Study Designs 59
Randomized Controlled Trial (Rct) 63
Types of Randomized Controlled Trials 65
Clinical Trials 65
Principles for Maximizing Follow up and Adherence to the Protocol 66
Elements to Monitor Clinical Trials 66
Research Methodology for Health Professionals xiv

7. Research on Diagnostic Tests …………………………………… 69
Lack of Information on Negative Tests 71
Lack of Objective Standard for Disease 72
Consequences of Imperfect Standard 72
Measures of Diagnostic Accuracy 72

8. Qualitative Research–Concepts and Methods ……………… 88
Purposes of Qualitative Methods 89
Research Methods and Philosophical Perspectives 89
How to do Qualitative Research? 94
Classification of Qualitative Research Procedures/Techniques 95
Participatory Inquiry 96
Procedure for Focus Group Discussion 100
Traits of a Good Focus Group Moderator 100
Seven Advantages of Focus Group Discussion (Fgd) 100

9. Variables…………………………………………………………….. 111
Operationalization of Variables by Choosing Appropriate Indicators 116
Identifying Indicators in Qualitative Studies 116

10. Determination of Sample Size………………………………… 118
Sample Size Determination 118
Estimating Sample Size with Absolute Precision 120
Absolute Size of Sample is Important, not the Sampling Fraction 121
Two-sample Situations 122
Sample Size Calculation for Various Epidemiological Studies 124
Sample Size Calculations for Measuring one Variable 125

11. Sampling Methods ……………………………………………….. 129
Representativeness 129
Sampling Methods 130
Probability or Random Sampling Strategies to Collect
Quantitative Data 131
Systematic Random Sampling 132
Non-Probability or Non-Random Sampling 135
Bias in Sampling 138
Ethical Considerations 139

12. Analysis of Quantitative Data…………………………………. 140
Descriptive Statistics 140
Properties of Frequency Distributions 145
Range 153
Quartile Deviation (Interquartile Range) 154
Mean Deviation (Md) 155
Standard Deviation (Sd) 156
Coefficient of Variation (Cv) 158
Inferential Statistics 159
Large Sample Tests 160
Contents xv
Small Sample Test (T-Statistics) or Student’s ‘t’ Test 163
Tests of Significance for Large and Small Sample (Annexures I and Ii) 167
Correlation and Regression 168

13. Analysis of Qualitative Data…………………………………… 172
Purposes of Qualitative Analysis 172

14. Data Collection Methods and Techniques…………………. 178
Experiencing (Through Observation and Field Notes) 178
Observational Methods 179
Enquiry 184
Examining 190
Bias in Data Collection 193
Ethical Considerations 194

15. Designing Research Instruments, Interview Guides and
Skills …………………………………………………………………. 195
Interview Skills 200

16. Data Management, Processing and Analysis ……………… 201
Data Quality Control and Management 201
Data Screening 202
Constructing a Database 203
Data Processing–Quantitative Data 204
Quality Control Tables and Checklists for Conducting Clinical Trials 208

17. Ethical Issues in Health Research …………………………… 210
Informed Consent 212
Institutional Ethics Committee (Iec)/Institutional Review Board (Irb) 215
Elements of the Review 216
Selection of Special Groups as Research Subjects: (Indian Council of
Medical Research) 218

18.Writing a Research Proposal…………………………………… 245
Basic Outline of a Research Proposal/Project 245
Budget 252

19. Steps in Thesis Writing………………………………………….. 254
Scientific Structure (Anatomy) of Dissertation 254
Tips to Start Thesis/Dissertation Writing 255
Aims and Objectives 257
Review of Literature 257
Materials and Methods 259

20. How to Write an Article for Publication? ………………….. 264
Check list for Writing an Original Paper 265
Types of Distractions While Writing a Paper 271

21. Critical Appraisal of Journal Article………………………… 273
Need for the Critical Review of Scientific Research Publication 273
Method of Evaluation 273

For Whom is this Book For

This Research Methodology for Health Professionals is perfect for Researchers, Residents and Practicing Physicians. It is the must-have reference for practitioners and residents! It acts as Reference Material for those students who are in Science Research fields. It includes topics pretty useful for Other Health Care Professionals including Clinical Pharmacists, Nurses, and Professors.

Details

Format of the eBook: PDF    Size: 4 MB

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Research Methodology for Health Professionals eBook Free Download

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