Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy, 7th Edition

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Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy 7th Edition eBook Free Download

Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy 7th Edition eBook PDF Free Download

Edited by Gopal B. Saha

Published by Springer

About the Book

This Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy, 7th Edition is edited by Gopal B. Saha. This Seventh Edition textbook of Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy chronicles the advancements in radio-pharmaceuticals and their use in clinical applications.

Features

– Discusses basic concepts such as the atom, radioactive decay, instrumentation and production of radionuclides, and explores the design, labeling, characteristics and quality control of radiopharmaceuticals.
– Radiation regulations and diagnostic and therapeutic applications of radiopharmaceuticals are detailed.
– Thoroughly updated, the Seventh Edition includes new topics such as alternative productions of 99Mo; production of 64 Cu, 86 Y, 89 Zr, 177 Lu, 223 Ra; synthesis and clinical uses of new radiopharmaceuticals such as DaTscan, Xofigo, Amyvid, Neuraceq, Vizamyl, Axumin and 68Ga-DOTATATE; dosimetry of new radiopharmaceuticals; theranostic agents and translational medicine.
– It features numerous examples, diagrams, and images to further clarify the information and offers end- of-chapter questions to help readers assess their comprehension of the material.
– Recognized as a classic text on nuclear chemistry and pharmacy and acclaimed for its concise and easy-to-understand presentation, Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy is an authoritative resource for nuclear medicine physicians, residents, students, and technologists.

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What You will Learn

The Topics Covered in this Textbook are

1 The Atom
1.1 Electronic Structure of the Atom
1.2 Chemical Bonds
1.2.1 Electrovalent or Ionic Bond
1.2.2 Covalent Bond
1.2.3 Coordinate Covalent Bond
1.2.4 Complex Formation
1.3 Structure of the Nucleus
1.3.1 Nomenclature
Suggested Reading
2 Radioactive Decay
2.1 Decay of Radionuclides
2.1.1 Spontaneous Fission
2.1.2 Alpha Decay (α-Decay)
2.1.3 Beta Decay (β–-Decay)
2.1.4 Positron or β+-Decay
2.1.5 Electron Capture
2.1.6 Isomeric Transition
2.2 Radioactive Decay Equations
2.2.1 General Equation
2.2.2 Half-Life and Mean Life
2.2.3 Units of Radioactivity
2.2.4 Calculations
2.3 Successive Decay Equations
2.3.1 General Equation
2.3.2 Transient Equilibrium
2.3.3 Secular Equilibrium
2.4 Statistics of Counting
2.4.1 Error, Accuracy, and Precision
2.4.2 Standard Deviation
2.4.3 Standard Deviation of Count Rates
2.4.4 Propagation of Errors
Suggested Reading
3 Instruments for Radiation Detection and Measurement
3.1 Gas-Filled Detectors
3.1.1 Dose Calibrators
3.1.2 Geiger–Müller Counters
3.2 Scintillation-Detecting Instruments
3.2.1 Collimator
3.2.2 Detector
3.2.3 Photomultiplier Tube
3.2.4 Preamplifier
3.2.5 Linear Amplifier
3.2.6 Pulse Height Analyzer
3.2.7 Display or Storage
3.3 Scintillation Camera
3.3.1 Collimator
3.3.2 Detector
3.3.3 X, Y Positioning Circuit
3.3.4 Pulse Height Analyzer
3.3.5 Digital Image
3.3.6 Display and Storage
3.4 Tomographic Imagers
3.4.1 Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
3.4.2 Positron Emission Tomography
3.4.3 PET/CT, PET/MR, and SPECT/CT
Suggested Reading
4 Production of Radionuclides
4.1 Cyclotron-Produced Radionuclides
4.1.1 Gallium-67
4.1.2 Iodine-123
4.1.3 Iodine-124
4.1.4 Germanium-68
4.1.5 Strontium-82
4.1.6 Indium-111
4.1.7 Copper-64
4.1.8 Thallium-201
4.1.9 Zirconium-89
4.1.10 Carbon-11
4.1.11 Nitrogen-13
4.1.12 Oxygen-15
4.1.13 Copper-62
4.1.14 Fluorine-18
4.2 Reactor-Produced Radionuclides
4.2.1 Fission or (n, f) Reaction
4.2.2 Neutron Capture or (n, γ) Reaction
4.3 Target and Its Processing
4.4 Equation for Production of Radionuclides
4.5 Specific Activity
References and Suggested Reading
5 Radionuclide Generators
5.1 Principles of a Generator
5.2 Important Radionuclide Generators
5.2.1 99Mo–99mTc Generator
5.2.2 68Ge–68Ga Generator (GalliaPharm)
5.2.3 90Sr–90Y Generator
5.2.4 62Zn–62Cu Generator
5.2.5 82Sr–82Rb Generator (Cardiogen-82)
5.2.6 227Ac → 227Th → 223Ra Generator
References and Suggested Reading
6 Radiopharmaceuticals and General Methods
of Radiolabeling
6.1 Definition of a Radiopharmaceutical
6.2 Ideal Radiopharmaceutical
6.2.1 Easy Availability
6.2.2 Short Effective Half-Life
6.2.3 No Particle Emission
6.2.4 Decay by Electron Capture or Isomeric Transition
6.2.5 High Target-to-Nontarget Activity Ratio
6.3 Design of New Radiopharmaceuticals
6.3.1 General Considerations
6.3.2 Factors Influencing the Design of New Radiopharmaceuticals
6.4 Methods of Radiolabeling
6.4.1 Isotope Exchange Reactions
6.4.2 Introduction of a Foreign Label
6.4.3 Labeling with Bifunctional Chelating Agents
6.4.4 Biosynthesis
6.5 Important Factors in Labeling
6.5.1 Efficiency of Labeling
6.5.2 Chemical Stability of Product
6.5.3 Denaturation or Alteration
6.5.4 Isotope Effect
6.5.5 Carrier-Free or No-Carrier-Added State
6.5.6 Storage Conditions
6.5.7 Specific Activity
6.5.8 Radiolysis
6.5.9 Purification and Analysis
6.5.10 Shelf-Life
6.6 Specific Methods of Labeling
6.6.1 Radioiodination
6.6.2 Labeling with 99mTc
6.6.3 Structure of 99mTc-Complexes
6.6.4 Oxidation States of 99mTc in 99mTc-Radiopharmaceuticals
6.6.5 Oxidation States in 99mTc-Labeled Proteins
6.6.6 Kits for 99mTc-Labeling
6.7 Colloids and Labeled Particles
6.8 Additives and Preservatives
References and Suggested Reading
7 Characteristics of Specific Radiopharmaceuticals
7.1 99mTc-Labeled Radiopharmaceuticals
7.1.1 99mTc-Sodium Pertechnetate
7.1.2 99mTc-Macroaggregated Albumin
7.1.3 99mTc-Phosphonate and Phosphate Radiopharmaceuticals
7.1.4 99mTc-Sulfur Colloid
7.1.5 99mTc-Albumin Colloid (Nanocolloid)
7.1.6 99mTc-Tilmanocept (Lymphoseek)
7.1.7 99mTc-Pentetate (DTPA)
7.1.8 99mTc-Labeled Red Blood Cells
7.1.9 99mTc-Iminodiacetic Acid Derivatives (Hepatolite, Mebrofenin)
7.1.10 99mTc-Hexamethylpropylene Amine Oxime (Ceretec)
7.1.11 99mTc-Sestamibi (Cardiolite, Miraluma)
7.1.12 99mTc-Mercaptoacetylglycylglycylglycine (MAG3)
7.1.13 99mTc-Ethyl Cysteinate Dimer (Neurolite)
7.1.14 99mTc-Tetrofosmin (Myoview)
7.1.15 99mTc-Dimercaptosuccinic Acid (Succimer)
7.1.16 99mTc-Technegas
7.2 Radioiodinated Radiopharmaceuticals
7.2.1 131I-Sodium Iodide
7.2.2 123I-Sodium Iodide
7.2.3 125I-Albumin
7.2.4 123I-Ioflupane (DaTscan)
7.2.5 123I- or 131I-Metaiodobenzylguanidine (AdreView)
7.2.6 125I-Sodium Iothalamate (Glofil)
7.3 Miscellaneous Radiopharmaceuticals of Clinical Interest
7.3.1 111In-DTPA
7.3.2 133Xe Gas
7.3.3 201Tl-Thallous Chloride
7.3.4 67Ga-Citrate
7.3.5 32P-Sodium Orthophosphate
7.3.6 89Sr-Strontium Chloride (Metastron)
7.3.7 153Sm-Ethylenediaminetetramethylene Phosphonic Acid (Quadramet)
7.3.8 57Co- or 58Co-Cyanocobalamin
7.3.9 51Cr-Labeled Red Blood Cells
7.3.10 Radiolabeled Leukocytes and Platelets
7.3.11 Radiolabeled Monoclonal Antibodies
7.3.12 Radiolabeled Peptides
7.3.13 Other Radiopharmaceuticals of Clinical Importance
7.4 US FDA-Approved PET Radiopharmaceuticals
7.4.1 18F-Sodium Fluoride
7.4.2 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose
7.4.3 18F-Fluciclovine (Axumin)
7.4.4 18F-Florbetapir (Amyvid)
7.4.5 18F-Flutemetamol (Vizamyl)
7.4.6 18F-Florbetaben (Neuraceq)
7.4.7 11C-Choline
7.4.8 13N-Ammonia
7.4.9 82Rb-Rubidium Chloride
7.4.10 68Ga- and 177Lu-Labeled DOTATOC and DOTATATE
7.5 Non-US FDA-Approved PET Radiopharmaceuticals of Potential Use
7.5.1 15O-Water
7.5.2 11C-Sodium Acetate
7.5.3 18F-Fluorodopa
7.5.4 18F-Fluorothymidine
7.5.5 18F-Flurpiridaz
7.6 Labeling of Therapeutic Radiopharmaceuticals
7.6.1 111In- and 90Y-Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin)
7.6.2 90Y-TheraSphere
7.6.3 90Y-SIR-Sphere (SIRTeX)
7.6.4 223Ra-Radium Chloride (Xofigo)
References and Suggested Reading
8 Quality Control of Radiopharmaceuticals
8.1 Physicochemical Tests
8.1.1 Physical Characteristics
8.1.2 pH and Ionic Strength
8.1.3 Radionuclidic Purity
8.1.4 Radiochemical Purity
8.1.5 Chemical Purity
8.1.6 Radioassay
8.2 Biological Tests
8.2.1 Sterility
8.2.2 Apyrogenicity
8.2.3 Toxicity
8.3 Record Keeping
References and Suggested Reading
9 Nuclear Pharmacy
9.1 Concept
9.2 Design of Nuclear Pharmacy Unit
9.3 USP General: Pharmaceutical Compounding Sterile Preparations
9.4 Operation of Nuclear Pharmacy
9.4.1 Receiving and Monitoring of Radioactive Packages
9.4.2 Preparation of Radiopharmaceuticals
9.4.3 Quality Control of Radiopharmaceuticals
9.4.4 Storage
9.4.5 Dispensing
9.4.6 Radioactive Waste Disposal
9.4.7 Infectious Waste Disposal
9.5 Nuclear Pharmacist
9.6 Centralized Nuclear Pharmacy
References and Suggested Reading
10 Internal Radiation Dosimetry
10.1 Radiation Units
10.2 Radiation Dosimetry
10.2.1 Calculation of Radiation Absorbed Dose
10.2.2 Radiation Dose in System International (SI) Units
10.2.3 Effective Dose Equivalent and Effective Dose
10.3 North American Consensus Guidelines for Pediatric Administered Radiopharmaceutical Activities
References and Suggested Reading
11 Radiation Regulations, Protection, and Uses
11.1 Food and Drug Administration
11.1.1 Investigational New Drug
11.1.2 New Drug Application
11.1.3 Expanded Access IND
11.1.4 Exploratory IND
11.1.5 Radioactive Drug Research Committee
11.1.6 Difference Between RDRC and Exploratory IND
11.1.7 PET Radiopharmaceuticals
11.1.8 FDA Regulations for Compounding in
Nuclear Pharmacies
11.1.9 Drug Quality and Security Act
11.1.10 State Boards of Pharmacy
11.2 Nuclear Regulatory Commission
11.2.1 Agreement States
11.2.2 Licenses
11.2.3 Accreditation of Nuclear Medicine Facilities
11.2.4 Radiation Protection
11.2.5 Medical Uses of Radioactive Materials
11.2.6 Report and Notification of Medical Event
11.2.7 Report and Notification of Dose to Embryo/Fetus or Nursing Child
11.2.8 Release of Patients Administered with Radiopharmaceuticals
11.2.9 Verification Card for Radioactive Patients
11.2.10 Record Keeping
11.3 Department of Transportation
11.4 European Regulations Governing Radiopharmaceuticals
11.4.1 Drug Registration
11.4.2 Good Manufacturing Practice
11.4.3 European Pharmacopoeia
11.4.4 Guidelines for Small-Scale Radiopharmaceutical Preparation
11.4.5 Radiation Protection
References and Suggested Reading
12 In Vitro and In Vivo Nonimaging Tests
12.1 Radioimmunoassay
12.1.1 Principle
12.1.2 Methodology
12.1.3 Sensitivity and Specificity
12.1.4 Application
12.2 Schilling Test
12.3 Blood Volume
12.3.1 125I-Labeled Serum Albumin Method
12.3.2 51Cr-Labeled Red Blood Cell Method
12.3.3 Application
12.4 Red Blood Cell Survival
Suggested Reading
13 Diagnostic Uses of Radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine
13.1 Central Nervous System
13.1.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.1.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.1.3 Diagnosis
13.2 Thyroid
13.2.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.2.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.2.3 Diagnosis
13.3 Lungs
13.3.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.3.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.3.3 Diagnosis
13.4 Liver
13.4.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.4.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.4.3 Diagnosis
13.5 Spleen
13.5.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.5.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.5.3 Diagnosis
13.6 Kidneys
13.6.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.6.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.6.3 Diagnosis
13.7 Skeleton
13.7.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.7.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.7.3 Diagnosis
13.8 Heart
13.8.1 Anatomy and Physiology
13.8.2 Radiopharmaceuticals and Imaging Techniques
13.8.3 Diagnosis
13.9 Miscellaneous Imaging Procedures
13.9.1 Tumor Imaging
13.9.2 Thrombus Detection
13.9.3 Lymphoscintigraphy
13.9.4 Gastric Emptying Imaging
13.9.5 Meckel’s Diverticulum Imaging
13.9.6 Gastrointestinal Bleeding Detection
13.9.7 Inflammatory Diseases and Infection Imaging
13.9.8 Parathyroid Imaging
References and Suggested Reading
14 Molecular Imaging
14.1 Methodology of Molecular Imaging
14.1.1 Conventional Molecular Imaging
14.1.2 Gene-Based Molecular Imaging
14.1.3 Oligodeoxynucleotide Antisense Probes to Image mRNA
14.1.4 Reporter Genes for Imaging
14.2 Gene Therapy
14.2.1 Gene Delivery
14.2.2 Specific Diseases
14.3 Nanoparticle Imaging
14.4 Theranostics
14.5 Translational Medicine
References and Suggested Reading
15 Therapeutic Uses of Radiopharmaceuticals in Nuclear Medicine
15.1 Treatment of Hyperthyroidism
15.2 Treatment of Thyroid Cancer
15.2.1 Whole-Body Imaging
15.2.2 Treatment with 131I
15.3 Treatment of Bone Pain
15.3.1 32P–Sodium Orthophosphate
15.3.2 89Sr-Strontium Chloride (Metastron)
15.3.3 153Sm-EDTMP (Quadramet)
15.4 Treatment of Liver Cancer
15.4.1 90Y–TheraSpheres
15.4.2 90Y–SIR-Spheres (SIR-TeX)
15.5 Treatment of Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma
15.5.1 90Y–Ibritumomab Tiuxetan (Zevalin)
15.6 Treatment of Polycythemia Vera and Leukemia
15.7 Treatment of Prostate Cancer and Its Metastasis
15.8 Pretargeted Radioimmunotherapy of Cancer
References and Suggested Reading
16 Adverse Reactions to and Altered Biodistribution of Radiopharmaceuticals
16.1 Adverse Reactions
16.2 Iatrogenic Alterations in Biodistribution of Radiopharmaceuticals

For Whom is this Book For

This Fundamentals of Nuclear Pharmacy, 7th Edition is perfect for Pharmacy Students and Pharmacists. It acts as Reference Material for those students who are pursuing their Graduation in Pharmacy. It includes topics pretty useful for Other Health Care Professionals including Clinical Pharmacists, Nurses and Professors.

Details

Format of the eBook: PDF      Size: 11.5 MB

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